Madhesh

The term Madhesh itself is derived from Sanskrit word ‘Madhyadesh’ that implies to the Gangetic plain and the Vitri Madhesh area bordering India on the southern side and spreading north up to the foothill of Siwalik range. The Terai region, which is mostly a flatland, is geographically and culturally distinct from the hills. According to the population census in 2001, it occupies 23 per cent of total area and 48.5 per cent of the population of Nepal. Most of the Terai inhabitants are plains (?) people or Madheshi whose religious traditions, language, caste system, food, style of clothing and other social customs and manners are similar to the people of Indo-Gangetic plains in the south.Fridrich Gaige (1975) used the terms ‘hill people’ and ‘plains people’ living in Terai districts, and defined a) “plains people are those who speak any one of the plains languages as their mother tongues or first language, whether they were born or lived in the plains or hills” the plains languages being Maithili, Bjojpuri, Awadhi, Urdu, Hindi and Bengali, and dialects of these languages used by Janjati groups, and b) “hill people whose mother tongue or first language is one that predominates in the hill region of Nepal such as Nepali, Newari, Magar, Gurung, Rai and others.Madhesh has a long historiography dating back to the kingdom of Vaideha or Mithila established in eastern to central Madhesh and a part of the present day north Bihar, India (Malangia, 1997). In the mid western Madhesh, Shakya kings ruled in 600 BC, the Buddha belonging to the Shakya dynasty was born in 563 BC. Similarly, kingdoms were established in Simraungarh in the present day Bara district. In Madhesh, several kingdoms were established and ruled by many dynasties (Thakur, 1956). These states perished with time and were abandoned and the land converted into forests. Gaige (1975) concluded: “the ancient and medieval history of this region is a cyclic one in which men and forests have dominated in turns”.The archeological studies through ancient arts, artifacts and monuments and excavation of historic sites (as in the case of Lumbini) of Madhesh, have not been done so far. Such studies would tell the ancient history of this region. Unlike the detailed historical study and research of Kathmandu Valley and other hilly regions, the Pahadi scholars and historians have never given any importance to the history of Madhesh and completely ignored the region. A few Madheshi historians and scholars who, due to lack of resources, have not yet studied the complex ancient history of Madhesh. In recent decades, Kapilvastu, the birth place of Lord Buddh, received worldwide recognition and support for meaningful excavation and detailed study and renovation of key sites.After the unification of Madhesh in Nepal by Prithivi Narayan Shah in 1769, its border was again re-drawn by the Sugauli Treaty concluded between British India and Nepal in 1816. The treaty scattered the people in Madhesh across the boarder that divides India and Nepal internationally. The Madheshis have ever since been divided till this day. (Singh, Amresh 2004, Restructuring of Nepali State: A Madheshi Perspective)

Area and Population

The total land area in the 20 Terai districts is 34,109 sq km which accounts for 23.1% of the country’s total area (Table 1). In 2001, 48.4% of the country’s total population of 23.2 million lived in Terai districts with a density of 329 persons/sq km. Terai plain and Vitri Madhesh together cover 15.6% of the country’s total area.

Madheshi Issues

Exclusion of Madhesh and Madeshis Social Exclusion

Social exclusion is defined as “the inability of our society to keep all groups and individuals within reach of what we expect as a society and the tendency to push vulnerable and difficult individuals in the least populous places”.

Language

‘Until 1958, Terai residents (plains people) as well as Indians were required to stop at the border town of Birgunj to obtain passport before proceeding to Kathmandu. Passports were then checked at Chisapani Garhi on the route to Kathmandu. Before 1951, one’s nationality appears to have been determined primarily on linguistic basis. Nepalese subjects were the “hill folks” who spoke Nepali or hill languages such as Newari, Magar and Gurung etc. For this reason passports were not required for people traveling to Kathmandu valley from the eastern or westerns hills.’ (Gaige: 88). Thus, in early 1950s language was the major factor for separating as well as discriminating Madheshi as outsider. This mindset continues until now.

Poverty

People living under absolute poverty line in Nepal are currently estimated to be 31%. However, about 46% of Dalits, 41% of Muslims and 33% of indigenous Janjati population are below the poverty line (World Bank, 2006). Together these three major ethnic groups have 52.6% of the total Madheshi population. The rest 47.4% of the Madheshi people have lower poverty level. The above poverty data indicates that a large proportion of Madheshi households are excluded from the mainstream development. Poverty itself is the main factor of exclusion; the poor people could not afford basic education, primary health care, sanitation practices and decenthousing.The data and information so far available (Per Capita Budget Allocation and Primary Sector Development Index, Source: Sharma and Shah 2002- New ERA, ICIMOD 1997) indicate that the Terai districts having higher proportion of Madheshi population have much lower socio-economic index values compared to districts where hill people are in dominance. Government and political institutions have been advocating and focusing poverty reduction program mostly in the hills and mountains, and they have been convincing the donors that only the hills and mountains have large number of poor people (Source required for this statement). It appears that until now, the politicians, policy makers, decision makers and national planners who are themselves hill origin people have ignored the socio-economic development issues of Madhesh. The fact is that the Madheshi people are not in the right place and their voices are not heard or considered.

Land Ownership

Acquisition of land assets is linked to citizenship issues. Since the knowledge of writing and speaking Nepali language was the clause in the Citizenship Act of 1960s for obtaining citizenship certificate, it was intentionally formulated to deny citizenship to Madheshi. The Madheshis of Terai, who have been living for several generations, are denied citizenship certificate due to their in-competency in Nepali language and without citizenship, land registration deed (lalpurja) is impossible and hence so many Madheshi are Landless. Landlessness has become a major problem among Madheshi community. The recent report indicates a grave situation particularly in Dalit, Janjati and Muslim ethnic community; about 37% of Dalits, and 32% of Janjati households do not own agricultural land while 41% of Muslims are landless. About 79% of Mushar, a Dalit community, do not own land; they have the lowest literacy rate of 7.3%.

Education:

The literacy level of the Madhesis in Terai (including inner Terai) is only 38.4 per cent as compared to 65.6 per cent for the Pahadi (including Himali) group.The Dalits are the most deprived group of population in Nepal, with only 39.2 per cent literacy. There is, however, substantial difference in the literacy level between hill Dalits (47.9%) and Terai Dalits (23.4%). Terai Dalits are on the lowest rung of socio-economic development ladder. Similarly, the literacy rate of Janjatis of Inner Terai and Terai together is only 50 per cent as compared to 58.7 per cent for Himal and 63.2 per cent for Hills. The literacy rate of Terai castes (including Muslims and excluding Janjatis and Dalits) is only 35.2 per cent as compared to 72.0 per cent for hill castes groups. Thus, the literacy level of hill castes is more than twice that of Madhesi castes. (Source: Calculated from Harka Gurung’s Nepali Document, Janajati Nepali-Au 8. Doc.)A study done by Dr Devendra Chhetry, entitled ‘Educationally Disadvantaged Ethnic Groups of Nepal’, conducted under MIMAP Project of APROSC and IDRC, in December 1996, points out the existence of a wide disparity in literacy rate between the Madhesi and Pahadi populations of Terai. ‘The average literacy rate of the Pahadi origin groups living in the Terai region is 54.5 per cent, while that of Terai origin groups population living in the Terai region is 26.4 per cent. The wide gap between the Pahadi and Terai origin population in the Terai region is a serious matter which warrants immediate attention of the policy makers”

Economic ExclusionEmployment in Civil Services and International Agencies Organizations

Three castes/ethnic groups namely Brahmins, Chhetris and Newars have dominated the civil service in the country. In 1991 these three castes constituted 36% of total population in Nepal but occupied 89.2 percent of position in civil service, while Madheshi community accounted for 32% of population but occupied only 8.4% of position in civil service. This indicates that Madheshi people have been highly discriminated in government services. It is interesting to note that in 1971 these three castes had occupied 89% of posts in civil services. Thus the pattern of civil service had not much changed over the past twenty years having these Brahmin, Chhetris and Newars dominating the civil service over the years and it is very unlikely that this trend will change in near future (Pashupati Rana’s Nepal’s Fourth Plan: A Critique. (Yeti Pocket Book Ltd 1971) pp 18- 19; D.N. Dhungel’s article “The Nepalese Administrative System” in Contemporary Nepal .P.P. 122-123).Out of the total 1,012 manpower involved in 91 international organizational agencies in 2001, there were 142 (14.1 %) Foreigners, 817 (80.7%) Pahadis and 53 (5.2%) Madhesi. (Source: UNDP (2001). Directory of the United Nations and Its related Specialized Agencies in Nepal, September 2001, UNDP, Kathmandu)

Representation in Cabinet, Constitutional Bodies and High Official Posts

The Pahadi Brahmins and Chhetris control most of the powerful positions and influence the government and other governing institutions with their action. They consider Madheshi as ‘non-Nepali’ or ‘less Nepali’ and as its consequence, the latter, gets excluded from a higher posts unless he is in their high level of confidence. A very low or negligible representation of Madheshi can be seen in constitutional bodies and in higher posts/ designation — where people make national policies, and are the key decision makers and policy implementers. (Relevant data can be sought from: Singh, A. (2003) Restructuring of Nepali State: A Madheshi Perspective)

Representation in Judiciary

About 8 per cent of the total judges of the country are from Madhesi communities whereas the remaining 92 per cent are from hill communities. Participation of judges from Madhesi communities at the Appellate Court is 14.9 per cent, which could be considered a ‘high level of participation’ compared to 3.7 per cent at district courts.

Political ExclusionElectoral Constituencies

The average population per constituency is considerably higher in Terai districts (127,414) than in the mountain (73,026) and 109,081 in the hill districts. This reduces the number of parliamentarians representing Terai region where about 96% of the country’s total Madheshi people live while increases their number from hills and mountains where 82% of the country’s total Pahadi people live.

(Source: http://madhesi.wordpress.com/2009/06/23/madhesh-and-madheshi-a-geographical-and-historic-perspective-2/)

Madhesh Facts at a Glance
  • Location: South Asia – Southern part of Nepal bordering India
  • Terrain: Plain low-lying flat land, includes some valleys
  • Climate: Hot and humid subtropical summer, mild winter
  • Area: About 23,068 sq. km
  • Population: About 12 million (2009)
  • Language: Madhyadeshiya (Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Maithili etc.)
  • Major Towns: Biratnagar, Rajbiraj, Janakpur, Birgunj, Nepal-gunj, Butwal, Dhangadhi, Mahendranagar
  • Famous Tourist Spots: Lumbini – the birth-place of Buddha (Buddhist pilgrimage and UNESCO world heritage site) Janakpur – the birth place of Sita (Hindu pilgrimage site) Bardiya and Chitwan National Parks Koshi Tappu and Parsa Wildlife Reserves
  • History and Politics:
    • Current regions of Madhesh handed over to Nepal by the East India Company through the treaty of 1816 (to support Nepal financially) and the treaty of 1860 (as a gift to Nepal for its help to British in suppressing the Sepoy Mutiny in India)
    • Madheshis struggling for rights and freedom for long: Nepal Tarai Congress formed in 1951, Madhesh Liberation Movement started in 1958, Sadbhavana Council in 1983, and Sadbhavana Party in 1990
    • Madhesh Movement 2007/8: Millions protested demanding autonomy, rights of self-determination and an end to racism and discrimination — four dozens killed and thousands injured.

TimeLine

Vedic/Mythical Period Ikshyaku or Okkāka becomes the first significant king of Madhyadesh (Madhesh)
Vedic/Mythical Period King Janak rules, capital at Janakpur;
Sita, the heroine of Ramayan, born (after 34 generation of Ikshyaku)
c. 1500 BC Manusmiriti (2/21) defines the boundary of Madhyadesh (Madhesh)
563BC Siddhartha Gautam (Buddha) born in Kapilvatthu, Majjhimadesh (Madhesh)
268-31 B.C Emperor Ashoka rules
249 BC Emperor Ashoka visits Lumbini, tax reduced and entitled to the eight part only.
ca. 353-73 AD Emperor Samudragupta
c.500-600 AD King Salhesh rules, capital at Mahisautha, Siraha
c. 1300 AD Harisinghadev rules, capital at Simraunagadh (currently Simra)
1325 AD Sultan Gayasudhin Tuglak attacks Simraunagadh
1513 – 1774 AD Sen Kingdoms in Palpa, Makawanpur, Chaudandi, Bijaypur, Morang
1526 AD Mughal Empire established
c. 1764 AD British East India Company gains control over many parts of Madhesh
1768 AD Gurkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah attacks Kathmandu;Dismisses 12000 Tirhutia (Madheshi) armies of Jay Prakash Malla
1774 AD Prithvi Narayan Shah attacks Makwanpur
1814-16 AD Anglo-Gurkha WarMadheshis fight on the British side
1816 AD British-Nepal Treaty on 8th December; British hands over Terai region between west of Koshi and east to Rapti river to Nepal
1846 Kot Massacre takes place; Jang Bahadur becomes prime minister
1860 AD British-Nepal Treaty; British gifts Terai region between Rapti and Mahakali rivers to Nepal for their support to the East India Company for suppressing Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 to 1859 in India
1911 AD King George V of Britain visits Terai and hunts 21 tigers, 8 rhinos, and a bear.
1923  Dec 21 Nepal changed from British protectorate to independent nation. (MC, 12/21/01)
1934 AD Jan 15, An 8.4 Richter scale earthquake kills thousands of people in Nepal/India
1950-51 AD Ranas fall; King Tribhuvan regains control; interim constitution promulgated
1951 AD Terai Congress formed led by Vedanand Jha
1952 King Mahendra ascends throne
1952 Nepal Citizenship Act promulgated
1955 Nepal admitted to the United Nations
1956 Nepalese government starts malaria eradication
1956 Raghunath Thakur established the Madhesh Liberation Movement
1957 Imposition of Nepali as sole language for education sparks protests
1958 End of visa provision for Madheshis to enter Kathmandu
1960s Terai Liberation Front established
1962 King Mahendra issues constitution unfavourable to Madheshis
1963 Nepalese Police kills Ramji Mishra, the leader of Terai Liberation Front
1964 New Citizenship Act makes it harder for Madhesis to acquire citizenship.
1964  ”Land Reformation Act” promulgated; massive land seized from Madheshis
1967  Royal Nepalese Army kills Raghunath Raya Yadav, the leader of Terai Liberation Front
1969  Chairman of Terai Liberation Front Satyadev Mani Tripathi killed
1972  King Birendra ascends throne
1981  Raghunath Thakur dies (June 21)
1983 Nepal Sadbhavana Council formed under Gajendra Narayan Singh to raise Madheshi issues.
1989 Nepal’s failure to renegotiate trade and transit treaties with India, India imposes sanction across “open border”
1990 New constitution promulgated following the agitations
1994 Dhanapati Upadhyay Commision finds 4 million people without citizenships
1996 Maoists launch insurgency.
1997 Supreme Court voids 30 thousands citizenship certificates of Madheshis
March 18 1998 Supreme Court bans the use of Maithili (local) language in Rajbiraj and Janakpur Municipalities
2000  Maoists set up Madhesi Rashtriya Mukti Morcha (MRMM) under Jai Krishna Goit in Siliguri.
2000 Dec 26, racial riot against Madheshis began all over the country, following  a rumour that Hrithnik Roshan, an Indian film star, allegedly spoke of his dislike for Nepal. At least 4 people killed.
2002 Supreme Court mandates people to get work permit in the lack of citizenship certificates. Many Madheshis out of work.
2004 Jay Krishna Goit forms the Janatantrik Tarai Mukti Morcha (JTMM).
2006 April Following nineteen-day mass movement, king announces reinstatement of parliament.
2006 December Nepalgunj Riot; 26-Dec, Pahadi attacks on a Madheshi gathering and the racial riot begins; Madheshis houses and shops burned, and Madheshis attacked; police and administration found supporting the attack. 30 December, Ian Martin, special representative of the UN Secretary-General, voices his concern about violent activities
2007 Jan-Feb  Madhesh Movement;19-Jan, Maoists clash with Madheshi activists in Lahan, killing student Ramesh Kumar Mahato.20-Jan, Curfew imposed; 21 January-7 February, Movement picks up against the government, with huge public support and mass defiance of curfews, clashes between police and protestors; Almost 40 killed.
2008 January Madhesh Movement; Massive protests against the government. A series of bomb blasts kill and injure dozens.
2008 May Nepal becomes a republic.
2011 January UN peace monitoring mission ends.
2011 March 31 Historic meeting of Madheshis took place in Kathmandu after 22 yearsDr. C. K. Raut appeals for a stronger coalition to take the Madhesh Movement to the global level
2011 May 21 Alliance for Independent Madhesh (AIM) announces manifesto and plans
2012 May Prime Minister Bhattari dissolves the parliament

 

Madhesh Movement

Madhesh Movement 1950s-1960s

Leaders of the period: Raghunath Thakur, Vedanand Jha, Durganand Jha, Ramji Mishra, Raghunath Raya Yadav, Satyadev Mani Tripathi

“Madhesh Liberation Movement” & “Madhesh Liberation Front”

In 1956, Raghunath Thakur established “Madhesi Mukti Aandolan” to oppose and fight the discrimination and exploitation against Terai residents. He agrued that Terai came under section 73 of UN charter and Terai was an autonomous region. Terai also had every right to make its own foreign policies. He later formed “Madhesi Janakrantikari Dal” to continue Madhesh Revolution. The organizations major objectives were to snatch power from Nepalese government for self governance; to choose capable Madhesis to make thir own army, police and bureauocrats; to hold domestic and international trade of Madhes to Madhesi people; to enforce law made by Madhesis in Madhesh; to give every Madhesi land’s ownership to Madhesi people; to chase away all the enemies who had authority from Madhesh. In sixties, Thakur went to India to meet different leaders to have his say and popularize his movement. He met then President Dr. Sharba Palli Radhakrishna. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, Acting Prime Minister Guljari lal Nanda , Prime Minister Morariji Desai, Agriculture Minister Jagjiban Ram , Home Minister Y.B. Chauhan, Industrial Development Minister Farukhdeen Ali Ahmed, Communication and Parliament Minister Ram Sughav Singh , Minerals and Mines Minister Channa Reddy, Transportation Minister Dr. B.K.R.B. Rao, Rail Minister C.N.Punatha, Law Minister Govinda Menon, Aviation Minister Dr. Karna Singh, Trade Minister Dinesh Singh, Information Minister K.K. Shah , Education Minister Dr. Trigul Sen, Planning Minister Ashok Mehata, Labour and resettlement minister Jai Sukhalal Hathi and other leaders like Dr.Ram Manohar Lohiya, Acharya J.B.Kripalani, MP Mrs. Sucheta Kripalani, Raghunath Thakur also meet with different newspapers editors , ambassadors and Chief Minister of Bihar Pandit Binodananda Jha, CM K.B. Shahaya and distributed his book about Madhesi people. He used to burn patrolmen in his forehead infront of Indian parliament. When asked what he was doing, Thakur replied, “Justice is lost or vanished from India and Nepal. I am in search of it with the help of petromax in the broad daylight” while struggle for Madhesis , he died on june 21, 1981 with rulers’ conspiracy.

In 1960′s to end the discrimination and exploitation against the indigenous people of Western Terai “Terai Liberation Front” was established. As the terai resident were deprived of citizenship and there land were being taken by Nepalese from hills, fighters from Terai Liberation Front to take up arms against the discrimination. They started an armed revolution with guerilla war strategy. Following this, Nepalese government started to kill the leaders of the groups. In June 1963, Nepalese Police killed a leader, Ramji Mishra. Similarly, in august 1967, the chairman of the group, Raghunath Raya Yadav, was shot dead by the Royal Nepalese Army. Also in august 1969, another chairman Satyadev Mani Tripathi was shot dead in Nautunawa , boarder of Utter pardesh. So, 1951, many organizations had revolted with or without arms against the atrocities of central rulers, but each time they were suppressed. The king, parties, organizations, groups’ influenced by sub nationalism and individuals made divide and rule policy in Terai and suppressed Terai people. The atrocities and exploitation from feudalism and colonialism is still going on.
(Source: History of Terai in Nepal, J. K. Goit)

Terai Congress

Vedanand Jha had established Terai Congress in 1951. “The party’s objectives were (a) establishment of an autonomous terai state, (b) recognition of Hindi as a separate language; and (c) adequate employment of tarai people in the Nepal civil service.” (Source: Gaige, 1975)

Assassination attempt of King in 1962

Durga Nanda Jha attempted to assassinate King Mahendra of Nepal in January 1962 in Janakpur to oppose imposition of the autocratic Panchayat Regime in 1961. He blasted a bomb targeting the car in which the king was traveling. He was later shot to death on 1963 AD (2020 BS). He was inspired from martyr Bhagat Singh of India.
Madhesh Movement 1980s-1990s

Leaders: Ganjendra Narayan Singh, Ram Janam Tiwari

Sadbhavana Council and Party

Gajendra Narayan Singh founded the Nepal Sadbhawana Party (NSP) in 1985. He took the Madhesi cause to National and International Level to raise awareness about the ongoing discrimination. Gajendra Narayan Singh, president of the Nepal Sadhbahavana Party, died on January 23, 2002. His body was taken to Saptari Sewa Ashram at Koiladi in Saptari District in Nepal and cremated with full state honours on January 25.

Singh led a very simple and austere life and spent most of his time in the Ashram he created in 1991. In July 2001, he created the “Gajendra Narayan Public Welfare trust” and donated all his property and belongings to the trust. The trust was to look after the poor, helpless and the backward communities in the southern districts of Nepal. Singh entered politics in 1947 and joined the Nepali National Congress, (presently the Nepali Congress) but left the party in 1980s to form a cultural forum known as Nepal Sadbhavana Parishad, which was turned later into a political party, the Nepal Sadhbhavana Party (NSP). Singh went into exile to Dharbanga in 1960, when King Mahendra seized control of the country after putting into prison the leaders of the ruling Nepali Congress in the brief period when Nepal experienced multi-party democracy between 1959 to 1960. Unable to visit his home, he lived a life in penury until he returned to Nepal in 1977. Singh continued to champion the cause of Terains throughout his political career. He left the Nepali Congress only when he felt that B.P. Koirala and his party continued to discriminate against the Terains. He continued to wear the traditional Dhoti and Kurta in the parliament while the official dress was the “Daura Suruwal”. Despite opposition from the Pahadi parliamentarians, Singh was not ashamed to speak in Hindi in parliamentary debates. Singh’s pet objective was to get full citizenship rights to a majority of Terains who were born and brought up in Terai. From the configuration of electoral districts, regions to recruitment in the army and Police, the Terains were and continue to be discriminated against in every field.

G.N. Singh despite being abused by the media, other political leaders and the bureaucracy continued to fight for the Terain cause. Singh on his return from exile believed that the interests of the Terains would best be served by working within the Panchayat system and accordingly stood for elections in 1980 in Saptari district. When the counting was going in favour of G.N. Singh, the workers in the counting hall chased away Singh’s supporters and the results were declared in favour of another candidate. Undaunted, he continued to stand for elections and won in all but one. Soon after the bomb blasts by the Janawadi Morcha of Ram Raja Prasad Singh near the Palace in the eighties, G.N.Singh was arrested and kept in chains for many months.

In spite of his incarceration G.N. Singh held no grudge against Late King Birendra or the monarchy itself. It was his view that the monarchy was the unifying factor and it was only the King who could help the Terain cause. In the initial stages G.N.Singh had many youngsters who flocked round him and worked genuinely for the cause. They were never given due encouragement and G.N.Singh like a banyan tree held everyone together but never allowed any leader to come up to take his place

Madhesh Martyers

Name Address Date of Martyrdom
Kamal Giri Nepalgunj 2063/09/11 BS
Ramesh Mahato Majhaura-5, Siraha 2063/10/05 BS
Bechan Yadav Dhodhna-5, Siraha 2063/10/06 BS
Md. Anish Rain Charrapatti, Siraha 2063/10/08 BS
Pramod Sada Mahadeva-3, Siraha 2063/10/08 BS
Bijay Sahani Mahadeva-3, Siraha 2063/10/08 BS
Sunita Mahato Govindapur-8, Siraha 2063/10/10 BS
Md. Mudasin Siraha 2063/10/08 BS
Jitendra Marwaita Saptari 2063/10/22 BS
Rajesh Yadav Saptari 2063/10/22 BS
Bhagwati Mandal Inaruwa, Sunsari 2063/10/08 BS
Ram Swarup Mehta Inaruwa, Sunsari 2063/10/07 BS
Ramanand Mehta Inaruwa, Sunsari 2063/10/18 BS
Sadanand Yadav Biratnagar, Morang 2063/10/17 BS
Rajkumar Kamat Biratnagar, Morang 2063/10/17 BS
Nirmal Kumar Rajbanshi Hatkhola, Morang 2063/10/13 BS
Tallu Harda – Hemram Hatkhola, Morang 2063/10/24 BS
Rajesh Thakur Parkauli, Mahottari 2063/10/20 BS
Kari Thakur Janakpur-14, Dhanusha 2063/10/21 BS
Shiv Shankar Yadav Dharapari-14 2063/10/21 BS
Manish Jha Saptari 2063/10/22 BS
Shyam SUndar Mehta Inaruwa, Sunsari 2063/10/07 BS
Hari Lal Mehta Inaruwa, Sunsari 2063/10/07 BS
Dindayal Mandal Hatkhola, Morang 2063/11/09 BS
Shekh Abdul Asarf Dhanusha 2063/10 BS
Babunarayan Yadav Janakpur, Dhanusha 2063/10/23 BS
Pawan Kumar Sah Janakpur, Dhanusha 2063/10/21 BS
Ashish Ali Mikrani Malangwa, Sarlahi 2063/10/21 BS
Dinesh Ray Yadav Gamhariya-6, Sarlahai 2063/10/21 BS
Ram Narayan Sah Salempur-3, Sarlahi 2063/10/21 BS
Ram Ekwal Ray Sirpur-6, Sarlahai 2063/10/21 BS
Jivdharai Ydava Malangwa, Sarlahi 2063/10/21 BS
Binod Ray Madanpur, Sarlahi 2063/10/21 BS
Sanjay Kumar Yadav Jamuniya, Sarlahi 2063/10/22 BS
Manjil Alam Ansari Kalaiya, Bara 2063/10/13 BS
Zamir Alam Kalaiya, Bara 2063/10/14 BS
Dipendra Sah Birganj, Parsa 2063/10/19 BS
Mahabir Sah Birganj, Parsa 2063/10/18 BS
Koili Koiri Puraina, Banke 2063/10/15 BS
Khahre Goriya Puraina, Banke 2063/10/15 BS
Mulram Tripathi Khajura, Banke 2063/10/25 BS
Kashiram Harijang Behari, Banke 2063/10/25 BS
Mataprasad Barma Belhari, Banke 2063/10/25 BS
Dilram Yadav Bardiya 2063/11/14 BS
Birbal Mukhiya Bardiya 2063/11/14 BS
Gulzar Khan Nepalgunj, Banke 2064/11/05 BS
Rajesh Thakru Vishnupur, Siraha 2064/11/05 BS
Gulten Das Bijhwa, Saptari 2064/11/13 BS
Tabaru Paswan Nawalparasi 2064/11/14 BS
Sutar Mukhiya Pato, Saptari 2064/11/14 BS
Biscut Miya Duhabi, Sunsari 2064/11/15 BS
Chandrika Yadav Rupandehi 2064/11/15 BS
Abdul Kayum Daphali Mahottari 2064/12/03 BS

 

(source: Madhesh.com)